In considering the use of L1 (the learners mother tongue) in ELT (English Language Teaching) on the part of the teacher Qadree Ollison Falcons Jersey , one of the first assumptions is that the teacher has a sufficient command of the students L1 to be of value in the first place. Another assumption which may well impact this scenario is that all the learners in a class or group have the same L1. While these assumptions may often be the case in numerous EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching learning settings, many times they are not. In the case of multi-cultural classes (i.e., in the USA, UK, Australia John Cominsky Falcons Jersey , Canada, India, etc.) where the learners have different L1s, or when the teacher does not have a working knowledge of the learners L1, a frequent occurrence in Asia Kendall Sheffield Falcons Jersey , Africa and eastern Europe, applied L1 use in the EFL classroom is severely limited or may be rendered virtually impossible.
Use of L1 in the Classroom
In my case, I'll talk about those instances where I do in fact use the learners L1 in my EFL classes. I have acquired a working knowledge of Spanish and all my university and independent students have Spanish as their L1. Although I'm against any substantial use of L1 in ESOL (the teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages) classes, there are situations where its use is quite valuable. In addition, at early levels a ratio of about 5 per cent native language to about 95 per cent target language may be more profitable than the use of "English only". (Atkinson Kaleb McGary Falcons Jersey , 1987) On the first day of class with a new group, I explain to the learners that they are allowed to ask "How do you say ______ , in Spanish?" where the Spanish (L1) word or phrase is filled in the blank. This allows the students to get key vocabulary in their written or spoken expression while limiting their use of L1 in class.
When learners are stumped for abstract lexis, a word or phrase which cannot be easily elicited during the course of a lesson, I'll simply "give" them the word in Spanish to aid in continuing with the smooth flow of the lesson and not get "bogged down" in trying to come up with the elusive lexis by other means. When a student gives me production of incomprehensible language Chris Lindstrom Falcons Jersey , i.e., I (nor the other learners) cannot decipher what the student is trying to say in English, I'll say "Tell me that in Spanish." Armed with this new understanding I (or one of the other learners) can then provide that learner with corrected, comprehensible forms which otherwise might elude both (or even all) of us.
During a written exl also "give" the learners a word or phrase writing it on the board in English and or Spanish to avoid extensive disruption of the test-taking process. Since I do not prepare the exams Takkarist McKinley Falcons Jersey , new lexis can creep into readings, instructions or exercises. When a learner, and as additional learners, ask for meaning or explanation of the word(s), I'll simply point to the lexis on the board without speaking.
When playing communicative Calvin Ridley Falcons Jersey , TPR (Asher, 1966 and passim) or "fast-paced" vocabulary games such as a learner favorite called "STOP", I'll again provide a translation of new lexis to help develop the learners vocabulary. These could be lexis of places, names in English Spanish, foods Julio Jones Falcons Jersey , animals or some verbs or use of the L1 in various code-switching activities. (Clandfield - Foord, 2003) This happens especially frequently when I need to explain why a particular word is incorrect or cannot be used.
L1 Use with LEP Learners
One additional instance when I switch to Spanish is when I must talk to LEP (Limited English Proficiency) learners about important administrative matters or procedures for which they do not have the necessary depth of vocabulary to understand. The importance of the material and their need to understand it outweigh the adherence of sticking to "English only" which is my "standard operating procedure" in the classroom. This is especially true in my case with groups of learners with less than about 250 contact hours of English which is equivalent to third semester or less. Note: Atkinson (1987 and passim) states 150 hours or less (second semester) for this stage although I have found it often extends into an additional semester.
On occasion, students will bring in a song or lyrics, usually Rock or Pop music, and ask the meaning of a word Deion Sanders Falcons Jersey , phrase, expression or sometimes even the title. In providing the requested explanation (when I can), I use comparisons and or translations into Spanish as often as is necessary. The same may occur with dialogue from popular films, movies and videos produced for native speakers of English. In rare instances, a cassette recording of a radio broadcast or book-on-tape has made its way into my classroom for the same reasons.
A final common instance in my use of L1 in the classroom is with learners in "repeat" or "remedial" classes of LEP learners. Since these learners have already demonstrated that the "traditional" teaching methods provided for in their course books is insufficient in teaching them the material. All these learners have failed the course at this level at least once Qadree Ollison Youth Jersey , some twice or more. I subsequently use a series of alternative methodologies including translation and other types of input feedback in the learners L1 to aid in the learning - acquisition process. These methods have, in fact, proved to be very successful. One reason may be that use of specially-t The aim o f the curren. Wholesale NHL Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys From China Wholesale Jerseys Wholesale Cheap NBA Jerseys Wholesale MLB Jerseys Cheap Wholesale Soccer Jerseys Wholesale Hockey Jerseys China Wholesale Throwback Nike NFL Jerseys Cheap Jerseys China Wholesale NBA Basketball Jerseys